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The dream of e-governance in districts of drought, hunger, poverty and starvation

 Jharkhand  Blog   





The dream of e-governance in districts of drought, hunger, poverty and starvation   


Palamu  commissionerate  in  the state of Jharkhand consisting  of  districts  of  Palamau, Garwah  and  Latehar  are  better  known  for  their  alarming  poverty  levels, drought, hunger  and starvation  in  extreme times resulting  In  deaths,  absentee  governance,   highest  levels   of  corruption, punishment  transfers  In  terms  of the  community  getting  notorious  and  corrupt  officials,  equally  corrupt political  parties and  its  leaders.   It  is  unfortunate  but  many  civil  society organisations are  not  far   behind  them  and  most  of the  development  programs in  the  region are given to  agencies who  can  tread  the  same   path of  corruption.   Thus this region is steeped in deep corruption.    As   there  are  frequent  droughts in  the  region,  there  is  always  speculation  and  declaration  of  drought  is greatly   looked  forward  as   the natural   calamity   brings  about  bounty  In  terms   of  programs  and  resources  .   



The  poor   are  steeped  in  extreme  illiteracy  and  their  prime  concern  is  survival  of  self  and  their  families.  They  consider  the   poor governance  and  maladministration  as  their  fate  and hence  in the  absence  of  any opposition  there is  uninterrupted  looting  of  the  resources  meant  for  the  poor.  In the  absence  of  able  leadership  that  works  for  the   people's  cause  the  different  political  parties  are  at  a  collision  course .    Incidentally  this region was  earlier  steeped  in  feudalism  the  traces  of  which  are   still  existing  to  till  date.    Large  tracts  of  land   called   Gair  Mazrua  land  also  was  usurped  by  the  landlords.   The   mean  existence  of  the  poor  at  the  behest  of  collection  of  mahua  fruit  and  flowers  -  these  resources  -  the  trees  also  were  under   landlord's  control.   The  other  attributes  of feudalism  are  creation  of   bonded  labour,   child  labour,  using   the  entire  family  force  of  the  dalits  for  domestic, agricultural  and  cattle  rearing  and  grazing .    The   dalit  women  being  subjected  to  sexual  harassment  were  common   features  of  the  region.


Independence,  land ceiling  act, abolition  of zamindari    system,    peasant   revolution   brought  about  some  cosmetic  and  some deep  rooted  changes.   The   extreme  left   ideology   took  deep  roots  in  the  region  as  all  the  ills of  the  class ,caste divide  of  the  society  were  found  in  the  region .    Majority  of  the   landlords  sold  their  lands  or  leased  their  lands  and  shifted  their  base  to  escape  the violence  and  life  threats  from  the  extreme  left   ideology  groups.   They   took up a new avatar in the form of contractors. 



The  contractors,  corrupt officials  both  civil  and  police ,  political  groups   forms   core  nexus  .    This  nexus   eats   into  almost  80%  of  the  resources  allotted  for  the  poor.   The  forest resources  such  as  kendu  patta  generate  huge  resources  for  the  contractors.    But  they  give  "protection  money"  or  "levy " to  various  sources  which  includes  the  extreme  groups .   In   the  similar  manner  for  execution  of  any  development  works  in  the  region  the  kickbacks  to  the  various  levels   is   included  In  the  estimation  itself  and  an  inflated  estimation  is  made.   Thus   most  of  the  works  are incomplete  or  it is   of  most  poor  quality  .    It  is  observed  that   in  the  name  of  drought  relief  umpteen  times   irrigation  structures  of  various  hue  and  cry  are  announced.  And  if  really  executed  then  there  would  be  no  more  ground  available  in   the region  for  execution  of  watershed  works.   During each drought relief work some cosmetic work in the same structures take place and it is shown as new work. 



It  if  difficult  for  any  outside  person  to  understand  the  complex  failures  of  systems  and paralysed programs in  the  region.  The  education, health, agricultural, banking ,  the  government  and  name  any  system  all  are  paralysed.  

Though  so  much  hype  is  created  In  the  media  and  the  government  circles  on  NREGA .  It is a non-starter or total failure in   the region.   Recently  we  had  a  rapid  assessment  of  the  ground  level  realities  on  NREGA.     There  is  no  need  to  conduct  any  social  audit  on  the  system.  Because  already  it  is  known  that  all  the  documents  are  fake  and  built  up.    In  the  entire  year  only  5—7  days  and  in  some  places  14  days  of work has  been  carried  out under this  scheme.  But  the  entries  in  the   job   cards  shows  56,60  and  even  100  days  of  employment  given  to  them.  

 Even in this  scheme  touts  are  fully engaged  as link  person  between  the  community  of  the  poor  and  the  government.   The  illiteracy  , ignorance  and helplessness of  the  poor  is  brought   to  full  utility .     The  people's  testimony  and  their  job  card entries  are  enough  to estimate  the  extreme  levels  of corruption  In  the  region.     No  doubt  the  lives  of  the  activists  taking  up  such  complex  issues   are   always  under  the  threat.     Further the voices are muffled   and muted by the authoritarian administration.




Rita Devi, Sanju Devi, Gaura Devi, Sunil Paswan, Akileshwar bhuiya and countless more people all hailing from Palamu region have common problem.    They have all obtained the job cards.  But in the last one year they were provided work ranging from 7 days to 14 days and no more. What is more startling is that they never understood that their job cards show that employment of 54 to 100 days has been marked for them by the touts.  When this was brought to their notice they were furious and helpless.  They all want to catch hold of the contractor who is managing their job cards and take them to task.  But in the existing system only these contractors are their link with the government officials and hence cannot also do away without them and are in dilemma as to what is to be done? 


The SHG women groups in one of the tribal villages have taken tender for laying the roads.  It is a huge tender nearing 14 lakhs of rupees.  The tender was for laying a stretch of 3k.m. road. The first stretch of 1 km was laid by the women group and their family members and members of the village community at a cost of Rs.2 lakhs.  But the average estimate of 1 km works out to be Rs4.60 lakhs .  The women groups members are aware that they need to "manage" the accounts  and the major money will go to the different levels of officials  and inspite of that they will be able to make better margins out of such contracts.

The school   teachers need not attend the schools.   It  is  enough  if  they  provide  money  to  the  school  inspectors  .   In  some places  the  teachers  are  generous  enough  to  appoint  local volunteers  to  take  classes at  very  low  costs.    The   emoluments of  the  teachers  are rotated  for  money  lending  to   the  villagers  at very high  cost .  Further  the  teachers  are at liberty  to  continue  their  domestic  chores and agricultural  works  unabated.    While  at  the  residential  schools for  the  girl children  the  families  of  the  teachers   are    well   taken   care  at  the  cost  of  food   deprivation  of  the  girl  children. 

The health care is in shambles.  The  life of the  poor  is not  valuable  and  in the absence of  appropriate  and  minimum medical care  the  poor  are  forced to fully  depend  on the quacks  locally called "Jholachap doctors".Most  of them  have  either  worked  under some doctor for short  period  or  have  just  learnt  the art  of  providing medication and made it as their means of livelihood.  Malaria and diarrhoea are the most common ailments and there are many times deaths due to these preventable and treatable diseases.  Due to lack of transport  the villagers  bring  the  patients  by  carrying the cot  and  walking  a distance of 16-20 kms.     This is the stark reality in the region.

As the poor's livelihood is totally dependent on agriculture, they necessarily have to migrate enmasse with family at least for 3-4 months in a year to the neighbouring Bihar or to far off places like Punjab for their mean survival.   As there is no organised system of labour migration, they go through contractors or based on their earlier rapport built.  There have been several instances of fatal accidents as they try to travel in every means of available transport on the goods vehicles and top of the trains. 


Very  recently  5 men  from this Lesliganj region went to UP for agricultural labour but found  the  owner was too demanding and tried to escape from him as they were almost living in captive condition.  They started running towards the railway station on the railway tracks.  While they were trying to cross the bridge a train was approaching and had no option  and three of them jumped into the river and lost their lives instantly.  Two of them tried to hang o n to  the rails and have their fingers badly mutilated.  The fact that many times such deaths  are hushed up as they are afraid of the lengthy police cases.  Migration is a means for their survival.  In the absence of any kind of constructive intervention from the government the people are forced to devise their own means of livelihood and thus migration has become the way of life for the poor in the region.


As far as agriculture is concerned, it is the experience and the expertise of the farmer and the entrepreneurship of the seeds and fertiliser dealer which takes ahead the agriculture. It is untouched by any kind of intervention from the experts.  The scientists are in their ivory towers and their expertise never reaches the common farmer.  There is no advice for the drought resistant crops and which to be used in   which season.  Each year when the monsoon starts the entire farmer sow the seeds.  As it is totally rain fed agriculture, they wait for rains during  the  " Hatia Nakshatra"  which falls in  the  Hindi  calendar  month of  "Ashwin" and  in  English  calendar  is  it  around  September  -  October.  If the rain fails in   this period of 15-20 days then the farmers are aware that all their crops will wither and they cannot go for the next Rabi crop as well.  Thus they mentally prepare themselves and make plans for migration for their survival. This is also indication of the upcoming drought in the region. There is no meteorological forecasting but it is indigenous knowledge and expertise of the local farming community which determines their immediate future in relation to assured livelihood or there is need for migration.


The so called food security schemes   are in total disarray. Primarily  the  BPL  number   and  card  is  the  poor's passport  to  social security entitlements of the  government.   To enable the poor get this entitlement itself is a big hurdle.  But  having  the  BPL  card  is  no  assurance  that  they  will be  able  to get  hold  of  the  social  security  measures. 


Manoj Bhuiya of Bakasi village is a daily wage labourer.   He lives with his wife and 9 children.   He  has been  allotted  the  Antyodaya  card  -  which  is  the  food  security  scheme  for the poorest among the  poor in the  village.    While  going   through  his card  we can  find out  that  for  the  current  year  all the  10months  are  ticked  showing that  he  got  his ration entitlements of  35  kg's of rice  at  Rs.2  per  kilo.  But while  discussing with him ,we  understand  that  so  far he has  received  the  rations only  thrice  but  records show  that he  has been issued the  rations  for 10 months. In spite  of  various  ills  the  administration  thinks  it  is  a  blot  on  its image  to  accept  the  fact  of  starvation deaths  in  the  region.  It  bends  back   to  declare  that  the  deaths  are due  to  " disease"  and  denying the  facts that  disease  at  the  first place  has   been  manifestation  of  cyclic  hunger,  consumption  of  forest roots ,ill health   and  ultimate  death.     As  if  the  government  is  not  responsible  for deaths  due  to  ill  health  ???   


In this scenario  the  central  government  envisaged e-governance  has been   planned and  brought  in this region  also.  Common Service   Centres  (CSC)  is   one of   the  policies  of  Central   Government  of India  -  Ministry  of   Information  Technology(IT)  to    launch  1  lakh  centres   covering  all  the  rural  panchayats  of  India.     A  public  private   partnership  initiative was  mooted  and  tenders  were  called   for   by  different  states  in  India.   Jharkhand   though   lags   behind  on  all   the  development  parameters  surprisingly  was  one  of  the  first  state to  launch  this  program  in  the  country  which many are  unaware.

One of  the  main  planks  of  CSC  is  to  bring about   transparency,   accountability  and  good  governance  at  the  grassroots  level.   All   the   common  certificates which the  citizens  require  from  time  to  time  for  various  purposes  are  to  be  made  available  at  the  panchayat  level  itself through  the  CSC  centres   which  would  be  linked  with the Government  of  Jharkhand  portal  at  Ranchi.  Apart   from  this  the  CSC would  be  nodal  point  for  services  related  to education,health,agriculture  and   any  other  commercial  services.

CSC centres is a luxury in the state of Jharkhand which is second last state in the ladder of development next only to its parent state of Bihar with 50% of the population living below the poverty line.

The creamy layer among the poorest is only the stakeholder who come forward with lot of hesitation to take up the csc centers.


The  establishment of  csc centres amidst lack of  basic amenities  such as roads, electricity, telephone and internet connectivity, official apathy primarily due to lack of awareness and secondly due to fear on loss of "control" over people and resources   and last but not the least the threatening  of the Maoist groups is the ground reality in Jharkhand.

Both Centre and State accepts that establishment of CSC is very difficult in the tough terrain of Jharkhand but only lip service is paid with no pro-action.

The State and Centre retorted back that SCA's have signed agreement knowing the infrastructure lacunae in the regions and hence should not complaint now.     Are the SCA's supposed to establish the infrastructure required prior to establishment of CSC's in the region??

Financial inclusion is a buzz word and bankers are just not inclined to render any financial assistance in terms of loans for the CSC's.  They have been playing passing the ball game successfully for the last one year.  There is rampant corruption at the banking level as well. When you talk to any villager, they tell you the prevailing rates of commission for obtaining any loan.  Sudama Singh said that  for obtaining the  Kisan  credit  cards the  current  rate is  10-15% of the loan  amount,   Beena Devi  said , "revolving  fund for  the women  under the  Swarna  Jayanthi  Rozgar  Yojna (SGSY)  is  20% " and thus  long  list of  existing  rates are available when  we talk to the  villagers.  Thus the  public  sector banks in  the  region  are  also  steeped   into  the  commission culture of the region.   Recent reports also indicate that many of the banks have not rendered loans to even a single BPL family in the past many years and they are categorised as zero lending banks.

Only corporate giants who can amass public wealth are appropriate for establishing the CSC's.  Even the government is interested only in the same.  Be it banking, mobile technology, micro credits such institutional set ups which want to convert csc are as their upfront shops in every nook and corner of the country are the prime players.   Thinking about equal opportunities, enabling the poorest of the poor to participate in the decision making, making them party to the platform of CSC does not seem to happen with so many obstacles strewn around.  CSC is a platform for the rich and the richest and poor has no role in it.

Though CSC can be used as a platform to promote the youth from diverting themselves in joining divisive forces there is no political and administrative will. The government could direct all its energies to utilise the various developmental programs allocated to the states through CSC's.  But as of now only the number games are on, There is a kind of rush and competition between states to show where they stand in terms of CSC.   The State of Jharkhand which is least in all parameters at least in the statistics of CSC is trying to catch the prime slot.   But the ground reality is totally different. 

The   governance is paralysed and proxy rule rules the roost in the region.  As  the  region  is  under  the  proxy  rule  of the  extreme  left  this is  used as major excuse by the  officials for not  performing their duties.     As  development  of  roads and communication  is  considered as threat to the extremists groups  they  make  every  possible  effort   to  sabotage  or  destabilise  the  communication networks. The  continuous blasting  of  the  mobile  towers in the  region  in  the  recent  times is  establishing  the  above  facts.   

There is   lack of phone and internet connectivity.  Even the government established Jharnet at the block level is non-functional.   The  computers   given  to  the  block  offices  are  non-functional  due to absence of electricity and no resources allocated for generators and running expenses and also the human resource crunch of no  trained  personnel   available.   The government owned telecom giant  has  been  given  crores  of  rupees to  set up  Broadband  connectivity  in  all  the  rural  regions. Yet we are struggling with basic connectivity.    Though  the  Rajiv  Gandhi  Rural  Electrification boasts  of  around   1500  crores  grant to  Jharkhand  state  ,  as  yet  the  CSC  centres  are  struggling  without  power  and  are  fully  dependent  on  the  generators  for  the  power.   There is no  proper  pucca  structures  available  everywhere  though  the  government  dictates  to  have  them  placed  in  panchayat  bhavans.  

Thus  the  CSC's in  Jharkhand  are  struggling  for  its basic  existence  among  all  the  odds  and  most   importantly  the  government  apathy.    As  it  is  not  taken  as  an  opportunity  to  establish  and  nurture the  relationship of  partnership.   The approach is more intimidating.   If  Jharkhand  government  expects  the  private  players  will  take  the  entire  risk  of rooting themselves  against  all  odds  I n  the  state  and  it  has  no  role  to play  except passing  orders  then  we  can increase  the  list  of the  failures  among  which  CSC  may  feature  as one of  the prominent  programs.

The major issue which is affecting the functioning of the csc centres is the deep rooted corruption in the region.  The major plank of the program is for transparency and good governance, but again the programs are administered under the same set of inept corrupt officials the program will be tainted in corruption.  The government talks of outsourcing number of its programs to CSC's.  But locally at what cost?  The first program of outsourcing has taken place for Narega Photography program.  Only the Village level Entrepreneurs (VLE's) who were smart enough to strike a deal with the Block Development officers were successful.   The deal being for every photograph of Narega beneficiary a set amount is given to the officials.   This is the beginning….   There are many more programs to follow suit and if the same trend is going to continue then unless and until you are mentally prepared to be "practical" and go along with the existing practices no program will be forthcoming. 

The officials are not sensitised on the benefits of the program.  The majority of the officials are IT illiterate.   Their core concern remains that their power will diminish and their recourse to the speed money will be lost. By pushing the ICT program of CSC under the purview of such officials the sheen of the program is being lost and it is pushed to the brink in the same manner and fate as of other programs.

The biggest challenge will be whether you will be able to wade through the turbulent tides of corruption to enable the CSC's to survive or the community will prepare itself to brace against corruption and fight to its logical end and ensure the CSC's survive, flourish and bring about the required changes.

But  the  failure  of  CSC   will  be  a biggest  loss  to  the  community  especially  the  poor  who will  loose  the  opportunity  of  seeing  good governance  knocking  at  their  doors.   The  youth  who  have  involved  themselves  in  establishing  the  csc's  will have their  dreams  crashed.   We  see  CSC  as  an  last  opportunity  to  ensure  a semblance  of   governance  in   the  region  and that  should  not become  a   lost  opportunity.  Amidst all its backwardness, controversies at least the CSC platform can be utilised by the Jharkhand state to negate its inactiveness in the region.

Before it is too late, the Government of Jharkhand and its officials need to wake up from their deep slumber.  They need to ensure the basic minimum infrastructure is made available to run the CSC centres.  Without internet connectivity, absence of pucca structures, absence of loans to the youth it is difficult to set up CSC centres in the state of Jharkhand.  There is need for a white paper from the Jharkhand government on the programs that are going to be outsourced to the csc centres.  There is need for bringing the different grant-in aid programs to synchronise with the CSC programs so that the youth are not pushed to the brink.








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Adivasi Gotras (septs) and History of Kurukh Tribe

 Jharkhand  Blog   





Adivasi Gotras (septs) and its meaning



The Kurukh tribe have large number of septs (Gotras) of the totemistic type, named after plants and animals. Members of any sept commonly abstain from killing or eating their sept totem. A man must not marry a member of his own sept nor a first cousin on the mother's side. The names show that as usual with the tribes of this part of the country the law of endogamy is by no means strict. The tribe have also a large number of exogamous septs of the totemistic type, named after plants and animals. Majority of Oraons write their septs. List of totemistic names of Kurukh septs:









Quail bird, found among Munda and Karia tribes.




Shad fish












A climbing plant




Wood picker bird




Name of  a bird or young mouse




Monkey or field rat












Exogamous sept, found in Mundas and Kharia tribes.




Wild hog.
















Domestic Worker





Meaning of the totem may be wrong, if you find any mistake please inform to the Kurukh World.


Kurukh World is maintained

by N Ekka,

Email: nekka@jharkhandi.com










Carp fish





Intestine of hog





Sweet potato















Wild dog, Jackal





 An animal, Rate
























Banyan tree








Kurukh priest(Baigas)




















Son river








Cast name of Oroan




Lord Ram, Exogamous sept




Valture Bird




Valture Bird




Tank weed




 A name of  tree




Exogamous sept




 Name of a bird




Exogamous sept








The Haluman ape












Swallow-tailed bird




Ficus religiosa











Kiss  khochol

Lit, hog bone, a thorny tree








Name of a water creature.








Exogamous sept, found among Gode tribes






  However, those who follow Tana Bhagat principle or Sarna Dharma write Bhagat in place of gotra. Many prefer to write Oraon as second name in place of gotra. In Chhattisgarh some oroans write Say, Nikunj, Ram and Devi after their name.










Indus Valley Civilization - Origin of Kurukhs


According to the history and traditions of Kurukhs, once they were lived in "Indus Valley Civilization" before 2500 B.C., peacefully and sophisticated life with another people of Indus valley. The earliest cities Mohenjodaro and Harappa to be remained  at Indus Valley of Sind. Further up the another ancient cities were discovered, as Rupar near Chandigarh,and Lothal near Ahmadabad etc. These cities had been made with carefully planed before houses and streets built. Houses were built of brick (Fig.1) and had thick, strong walls, which were plastered and coloured, roofs were flat, windows and doors were probably made of wood. The streets ran straight and at right angles to each other. The houses were built on both side of the street. Lothal was the foreign export-emport center, had a big harbor. It can be seen till today. With anothe people of Indus Kurukhs people had trading to the other part of Asia, Africa and Egypt, they had trading contact with people of Sumer. Even in those days there was trade between India and other parts of world. They used to ate meat, fish and wheat, barely and fruits, they liked particularly pomegranates and bananas. They knew how to weave cotton women wore a short skirt and lining par (near boarder) cotton saree, as like kurukh women are wearing today.The men wrapped long pieces of cloth around themselves, they liked most lonngi, dhoti, feta and langot as today adivasis are wearing. They discovered couper, bronz, tin and lead and made tools and knives for agriculture and domestic use. One ancient tools has been found in Palamu district of Jharkhand state, which is similar to the tools of Indus Valley. Now it is kept in museum of Patna. It proofs that kurukhs are descendants of Indus civilization. It is proofed from the seals and scripts, that people of the Indus were spoken star as binko, village as paddu and woman as ali and man as aal. Even today kurukhs says Binko, padda, aali and aal respectively.




Indus valley civilization have been destroyed by floods, which came regularly; or there may have been an epidemic or some terrible disease which killed the people. The climate also began to change and the region became more and more dry and like a desert (once desert of Rajasthan was a big fertile plane), or else the cities may have been attacked by the Aryans. There has so many cast lived in Indus Valley. Kurukhs are from  Dravidian family and they had relation between Brahui and other people of Indus. They were very honest, simple and peaceful persons, another people had been always unnecessary pressurized and  attacked them. As like another Dravidian people of Indus, Kurukhs were unable to stay there. They have migrated in about 2500 B.C. to North East and South West region from Baluchistan (Area of Indus River). Brahuies had been already went out to the North West region in 3000 B.C.


Migration Paths:


This migration paths (Fig.3) has been drowned by Elefenbein,1987 is called Bloch's hypothesis. According to this migration paths Brahui tribes were migrated from Baluchistan, area of Indus Valley in different direction. One can see in fig.3, the tribes which spoke Brahui, split into three as they moved south- east from the Baluchistan province of Pakistan, in older times. The fourth one went to the Sindh province in Pakistan. Figure 3 shows the area in Baluchistan where they speak Brahui even now. In the Figure one of these tribes who were going south - east, split into two at Rohtasgarh in the present state of Bihar. After splitting, one went to the Raj-Mahal hills near Santhal Pargna and settled there, and the other went to the Chhotanagpur plateau. These were the Kurukh ( Oraon ) speaking tribes.




These tribes who were going south-east from Baluchistan came and lived at west coast of India at carnatic region. There was a king of Karkal and Karkai named 'Kank Pany'. These are located in Carnatic area. He was a Kurukh king and made fort of 'Doshar'. Kurukhs are again migrated from here and through plane of Nerbudda River they came to Amarkantak, than Kat region, where they made Annandgarh and Pipragarh in Madya Pradesh. They spent 500 years up to reach here. Thereafter they had been living in flat area, near Son River and Karamanas marday. They said this place Kurus Country. They had been made various fort during the year 900-800 B.C. One of these is Rohtashgarh fort in Dehri On-Sone of Bihar state.


Kurukhs in Rohtasgath (500-400 B.C):


Rohtashgarh is in Kurus, where Kurukhs made a hugh fort. They had their own King named Raja Harichandra. They were rich and spent more time peacefully and good condition. It was the period between 500-400 B.C. and called Gold Period of Kurukh's in Rohtasgarh. It is hill place called series of Kaimur hill and situated at 1490 fit above from sea level and 45 KM far from Dehri On-Sone and 39 KM from Sasaram. It now occupies a part of the plateau about 4 miles east to west and 5 miles north to south, 28 miles in circumference. It is considered one of the largest and strongest hill forts in India. This fort served as a safe shelter for treasures and families of Sher Shah Suri, Shah Jahan, maan singh, Mir Qasim. Records suggest that there are 84 passages to the hill with 14 main gates entry. However 10 were closed by Sher Shah Suri.   ( About detail  History of Rohtasgarh click it).




In about 100 B.C., king of Cheros, descendants of Sung had been attacked at least three times, but they were defeated by the Kurukhs. Now Cheros are the tribal of India, found in Palamu and Chaibasa region , migrated from the sub-Himalayan tract and they bear the Dravadian physiognomy with light brown complexion. In 1538, it is said that Sher Shah Suri attacked to the fort on Sarhul - the festival of the Kurukhs, when they were dead drunk. He has chosen  this day, because he had known, Kurukhs were very strong and brave, he can't succeeded in another day. Singi Dai, princess of Rohtashgarh, and her friends Champa and kaili were the most brave women of Tribes. They have show the soldier of Sher Shah, coming to the fort, at once, they used their mind in leadership of Singi Dai. All men  were dead drunk thrugh the hadia (house made rice bear). Women dressed on men clothes , they tied up pheta in head, weared dhoti, trousers and langot, armed with weapons and  went out to the battle field. Enemies are driven out from the fort three times. A milkmaid from another village had been coming every day to Rohtasgarh for selling milk. Afghan soldiers told her that, Kurukhs are very strong and brave, we can not fight against them. Milkmaid said " Whole you are stupid, they are not men, but women. All Kurukh men are in dead alike, after drunken hadia. She told them some action to reorganization women, she continued, if they will taking water from both hand and wash their faces with both hands, they are women and if they will wash faces with their one hand, than they are men. Women were washing their faces into Son River after defeating enemies and driven out them from the city. Afghans seen  them from far away. They went again to the fort and attacked and captured the fort. Kurukhs are defeated  and they were driven out by forcely  from  Rohtasgarh. 


Settled in Chhotanagpur:


 As we know Kurukhs are divided into two group from Rohtasgarh, one group had been went to the Chhotangpur plateau. It is told that King, Queen and their son Ruidas and their soldier came to a village named Sutiyanba at near Ranchi. Mundas were there already engaged in Chhotanagpur. Head of the soldier Mr. Lakhser had came down from his horse and requested from Shri Manki Madira leader of Mundas to escape themselves and to give house for stay. Manki Madira have put off shield from his body and  gave food with beef and Kodatoli and Jonkhtoli for their stay. Shri Budhwa Oroan, Parha leader of Oroan had borned from daughter in low of Lakhser at village Sutyanba. Who had been governed Chhotangpur for some years. He had made Navratangarh of Donysa. Another group of Kurukh driven out from Rohtasgarh have went to the Rajmahal hill sereis of Santhal Pargrna, after that they have residing bank of Ganga River. Maltos at Litipara of Dumaka and Sour Pahadia people are the same people. Sour Pahadia people are speaking is 90% Kurukh language.


Ancestors of the Oraons or Kurukhs often call themselves." Towards Lohardaga the Oraons found themselves among the Mundas or Kols, who probably retired by degrees and left them in possession of the country. "The Oraons," Father Dehon states, "are an exceedingly prolific tribe and soon become the preponderant element, while the Mundas, being conservative and averse to living among strangers, emigrate towards another jungle.The Mundas hate zamindars, and whenever they can do so, prefer to live in a retired corner in full possession of their small holding; and it is not at all improbable that, as the zamindars took possession of the newly-formed villages, they retired towards the east, while the Oraons, being good beasts of burden and more accustomed to subjection, remained." In view of the fine physique and martial character of the Larka or Fighting Kols or Mundas, Dalton was sceptical of the theory that they could ever have retired before the Oraons; but in addition to the fact that many villages in which Oraons now live have Mundari names, it may be noted that the headman of an Oraon village is termed Munda and is considered to be descended from its founder, while for the Pahan or priest of the village gods, the Oraons always employ a Munda if available, and it is one of the Pahan's duties to point out the boundary of the village in cases of dispute; this is a function regularly assigned to the earliest residents, and seems to be strong evidence that the Oraons found the Mundas settled in Chota Nagpur when they arrived there. It is not necessary to suppose that any conquest or forcible expropriation took place; and it is probable that, as the country was opened up, the Mundas by preference retired to the wilder forest tracts, just as in the Central Provinces the Korkus and Baigas gave way to the Gonds, and the Gonds themselves relinquished the open country to the Hindus. None of the writers quoted notice the name Munda as applied to the headman of an Oraon village, but it can hardly be doubted that it is connected with that of the tribe; and it would be interesting also to know whether the Pahan or village priest takes his name from the Pans or Gandas. Dalton says that the Pans are domesticated as essential constituents of every Ho or Kol village community, but does not allude to their presence among the Oraons. The custom in the Central Provinces in Gond villages is that the village priest is always known as Baiga, because in some localities members of the Baiga tribe are commonly employed here. In villages first settled by Oraons, the population, Father Dehon states, is divided into three khunts, or branches, named after the Munda, Pahan and Mahto, the founders of the three branches being held to have been sons of the first settler. Members of each branch belong therefore to the same sept or got. Each khunt  has a share of the village lands.


In 1616, descendent of Nag, king Durjan Sai bacame a king of Chhotanagpur. He made Ramgarh, as a capital of the Chhotanagpur. This time Jahangir was the Mugal King of Delhi. He  demanded tax of Oroan and Munda people. Durjan Sai was unable to pay this vital tax. Janhagir attacked to the Ramgarh by governer Ebrahim Khan. King Durjan Sai had sized and he had taken to the Jail of Gavalior, where he had spent 12 years. Durjan Sai was the specialist to recognize diamond of Govalior .Therefore he had taken out from the jail and came to Ramgarh. Now he had changed his culture and became a member of Aryan Culture.


In 1831, Jagarnath became a King of Chhotanagpur. During this period British had been ruled in India. Taxes rules and landlord rules started. Jagarnath was can't payed the taxes of Chhotanagpur. In 1832, war started between British and Adi-Vashi. A lot of adi-vashis were died. Kol insurrection (1832), Ganga Narayan revolt (1832), Birsa Revolt(1895), In 1895 war started against Sikh, called Sardar War. Large number of people sheltered through the sword. War between Kurukh and Munda was happened at Murma ground near Mandar. Mundas were defeated. In memory of this victory Kurukh people celebrate a big Mela every year at Murma. In ancient time it was being the traditional Mela and Jatra dances was happening. But now a days it was converted into a big business market.


In 1908, land tenancy act passed by the British Government. Now kurukhs have a chance to save their land and encourage  their property. They have found an opportunity to manage their own  house.




Christian Missionaries & their roll:


 In 2nd November 1845, first time four missionaries were came to Ranchi, from Barlin city of Germany. After that, many missionaries have came to Chhotangapur from different churches. The British colonial power in order to create a class for manning its ruling apparatus utilized Christian missionaries to open educational institutions and schools in the area, which produced a section of tribal people educated in western pattern. Britishers succeeded in creating a class within the otherwise classless tribal society. This was in fact, the beginning of the dilution of tribal identity. Amit Ghos said "Missionaries functioned according to well chalked out programme in the Chhotangpur. They produced an ideology for the peasant system emerging in the tribal region and grafted the notion of private property in land to the communal mode of production, articulated the demands of tribals as peasant proprietors for the restoration of land, regulation of rent, and abolition of of feudal dues, guided peasant struggles against Zamindars, worked for the passage of agrarian law and setup peasant organizations like co-operative credit societies. In fact, they gave a new sense of self-respect to the tribal peasants and sought to create a separate identy of them."  Christian mission offered a useful institutional canopy over an area seething with adivasi discontent and helped usher in the associational density that was a feature af adivasi mobilization in the early 20th century. Soon numerous assciations wre formed to raise funds for educating adivasis and fight diku operation like the Christian association in 1898 by Lutheran gradates, Christian Students Organization in 1912, Chhotanagpur Charitable Association in 1912, Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj in 1915, Decca Students Union in 1916, Catholics Sabha in 1935. There were mostly initiatives of Lutheran and Anglican youth leaders, further they were followed by Catholics who formed Catholic Sabha. Owing to the exposure and motivation given to them by the Christian missionaries a sense of new political awareness developed among the tribal people in the national context. An entire generation of Christian tribal politicians, emerging from a comparatively earlier access to education, founded and established the movement for state autonomy that started in the late 1930's, with active support of German Evangelical Lutheran Church. Emergence of some semi-political organizations like, Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj(1915), whose  members were mostly Christian tribals  from the Lutheram and Anglican congregations. It was led by Joel Lakra and Catholic Sabha (1935), through the unifying efforts of Ignes Beck, a Catholic politician, that all these associations merged to become the Chotanagpur Adivasi Mahasabh(1938), which was to start the movement for a separate state for tribals.  Later, finally it turned into the first political Party of the tribals  (1949) known as Jharkhand Party, which became the largest opposition entity in the Bihar assembly in the 1952s with figures like Jaipal Singh, Theodor surin, Ignace beck, Paul Dayal, Julius Tigga, Bonifas Lakra, Samuel Purti, N.E. Horo and Jastin Richard working in tandem with prominent non-Christian leader Bandiram Oroan . Ironically, except one Bandiram Oraon all the prominent leaders of the party were Christians. Later Theble Oroan and  Kartik Oroan came to the Party.  Again Jharkhand Party succeeded 1n 1957. There is a sense now that the Christian activism has retreated and been superseded by the frenetic nature of ethno regionalist clamor splitting into various factions, merging with the Congress in 1963, the locus of social movement activity shifting to agrarian struggles in in the Santhal Pargana led by Shibu Soren' s Jarkhand Mukti Morcha in the mid 1970s, the agitationnist phase of the All Jharkhand Students Union(AJSU)  in the mid 1980s leading to formation of the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 prior to the formation of the Jharkhand state in November 2000.




Jharkhand Movement:


The Jharkhand movement, which was basically for the cause of tribals, turmoil is basically a manifestation of tribal youths' urge to identify the Jharkhand nationalism, got momentum, when Jharkhand Party won all the 33 reserved tribal seats in Bihar assembly in 1952 and became the main opposition party.  Later in 1955 it placed a demand for a separate Jharkhand state comprising of the contiguous regions of Bihar, West Bengal , Orissa and Madhya Pradesh before the State Reorganization Commission. The demand was however rejected on grounds of some reasons. Jharkhand movement got a set back in 1963 when the Jharkhand Party merged with Congress with ministerial berth to Jaipal Singh, the main tribal leader belonging to Munda tribe.  Gradually, leaders emerging from different ethnic groups in the name of Jharkhand movement also became commodities in the market of politics to be purchased by the highest bidder of the contemporary ruling party.  This political turmoil however provided an opportunity to the forces like Left Extremists, Social Action Groups and Christian Action Groups to infiltrate into the Jharkhand movement.




Tribal and Regional Language department in Ranchi University :


Opening of Tribal and Regional Language department in Ranchi University in 1981 was a landmark event in this regard. This department started post-graduate teaching of the following five dialects: Mundari, Santali, Kurukh, Kharia and Ho, of the region being spoken by the prominent tribal groups. This newly created department, which worked as a midwife to help the delivery of a new concept of Jharkhand nationality - was entrusted with the task to develop these dialects into languages and to propagate the spirit of Jharkhand nationalism from urban centres to the remotest and nearly inaccessible parts of the region. This department also provided leadership to the Jharkhandi students, who gradually became vanguard to the movement for the demand of separate Jharkhand State. This department has been conducted various Kurukh courses  from Intermadiate(12th) to Post-Graduate students. So many books, like as poem, songs and story etc. are written for the courses. Now this language is developing gradually.




New Jharkhand  &  Chhattisgarh States  and expectation of Tribal:


New Jharkhand state along with Utranchal and Chhattisgarh states were created in year November 2000. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh have the majority of tribal. Both Adi-Vashis, Shri Bab Lal Marandi and Shri Ajit Jogi were became first Chief Ministers of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. We have seen, Jharkhand movement was basically a manifestation of tribal youths' urge to identify the Jharkhand nationalism  with tribal welfare. With the natural growth of careerism among the students and unemployed youths , when the state of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh were born by the end of twentieth century the tribal people came up with the demand for their employment. Kurukhs are inhabitants both on Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Now a day Kurukhs are developing with another tribal people. They are enjoying as various employment, they become member of parliament and legislative member in both state. Various government scheme and programme are runing for development of Tribal people.


Since the political leadership of the state is not in a position to meet the expectations of the Jharkhandis, it initiated the controversial domicile policy to divert their attention.  Babulal Marandi , the  former chief minister,  has thus opened the Pandora's box as only Jharkhandis whose fore fathers' names were recorded in 1932 would be benefited.






We studied the history of Kurukh tribe, which was very rich and well established. They has been nomadic and migrated one place to another place, since 2500 B.C. to near about 1540, until they settled in Chhotanagpur. They spent 4040 years in nomadic environment, therefore they can not develop their society and language like as south Indian society and their language. Even though, they are developing their society and language. At present, they can find anywhere in India, working in different field on private, semi-government and government organizations, even someone, who are well qualified, migrated to developed foreign countries, i.e. Unite states and England etc. They are becoming member of parliament and legislative member in both state. As a hockey player, many Kurukh players in Indian men and women hockey team, they have been spreading name of India in the world. Today they have school, collages, i.e. Tana  Bhghat Schools, Kartik Oroan Collage, Bero, Perm Veer Albart Collage Chainpur through the help of Government. Hospitals and School, Collages are opened by some private organization for development of tribes. Government has so many programme to implement the plan for development of Kurukh tribal, i.e. Rojgar Garantee Yojna, Indra Aawas Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Sark Yojna, Tribal Education Scheme etc.






Material Collected & Written by: N. Ekka,

Email: nekka@jharkhandi.com


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The first Kurukh Video Blog on the web









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